Cell Theory:
• All living things are made up of cells
• You Must have a pre-existing cell for more cells to be created. - All life comes from cells!
• Cells must have organization to function

Parts of Cells and their Functions

Manufacturing cells
• Nucleus- DNA and RNA synthesis
• Nucleolus- Assembly of ribosomal subunits
• Rough ER- Synthesis of membrane proteins, secretory proteins, and hydrolytic enzymes; formation of transport vesicles
• Smooth ER- Livid synthesis; carbohydrate metabolism in liver cells; detoxification in liver cells; calcium ion storage
• Golgi apparatus- Modification, temporary storage, and transport of macromolecules; formation of lysosomes and transport vesicles

Breakdown
• Lysosomes- Digestion of nutrients, bacteria, and damaged organelles: destruction of certain cells during embryonic development
• Peroxisomes- Diverse metabolic processes, with breakdown of H2O2 by product
• Vacuoles- Digestion (like lysosomes); storage of chemicals ; cell enlargement; water balance

Processing
• Chloroplasts- Conversion of light energy to chemical energy of sugars ( in plants and some protists)
• Mitochondria- Conversions of chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP

Support, Movement, and communication between cells
• Cytoskeleton- Maintenance of cell shape; anchorage for organelles; movement of organelles within cells; cell movement; mechanical transmission of signals form
exterior of cell to interior
-Microfilaments- solid helical rods composed of mainly a globular protein called actin
- Intermediate filament- made of fibrous proteins and have a rope like structure; sereve mainly as reinforcing fords for bearing tension bus also help anchor certain organelles
- Microtubules- straight, hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins; provide rigidity and shape in one area and may disassemble and then reassemble elsewhere in cell.
• Cell Walls- Maintenance of cell shape and skeletal support; surface protection; binding of cells in tissues
• Extracellular matrix- Binding of cells in tissues; surface protection; regulation of cellular activities
• Cell junctions- Communication between cells; binding of cells in tissues
-Tight Junction- bind cells together, forming a leakproof sheet ( lines digestive tract, preventing the contents from leaking into surrounding tissues)
- Anchoring Junction- attach adjacent cells to each other or to the extracellular matrix, they rivet cells together with cytoskeletal fivers but still allow materials to pass along the spaces between cells
- Communicating Junction- channels similar to function of the plasmodesmata of plants; they allow water and other small molecules to flow between neighboring cells ( especially common to animal embryos, where chemical communication between cells is essential for development )