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  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)- portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes that synthesizes proteins. Also transports the proteins made in the ribosomes.
  • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)- portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes that synthesis lipids, stores calcium ions, and detoxifies in the liver.
  • Centrioles- A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 - 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles that create spindles used by chromatin in cell division
  • Nucleus- The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. Controls cell. (Could also be put in communication category)
  • Nucleolus- produces ribosomes in nucleus.
  • Chloroplasts- An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water. It contains thick fluid called stroma as well as disks called granum, which is where solar energy is actually trapped.
  • Mitochondria- An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration. Consists of two membranes. Inside the second there are folds, called cristae, which increase the surface area of the membrane and enhance the production of ATP.
  • Ribosomes- A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of RNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits. Synthesizes proteins in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. (Could also be put in the communication category)
  • Nuclear Pores- Holes in the nuclear membrane that allow the passing of RNA in and out of the nucleus
  • Nuclear Envelope- double membrane of the nucleus that encloses genetic material in eukaryotic cells, separating the contents of the nucleus (particularly DNA) from the cytosol

  • Cell wall- A rigid structure surrounding plant cells that provides support and rigidity
  • Cytoskeleton- A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.
  • Vacuole (Central Vacuole)- A membrane-enclosed sac taking up most of the interior of a mature plant cell and containing a variety of substances important in plant reproduction, growth, and development. It also provides support for a plant. When vacuoles lose water, a plant will wilt (Vacuoles could also be put in Breakdown because of the enzymes they contain).
  • Plasmodesmada- They allow vacuoles in adjoining cells to have the same amount of liquid.
  • Contractile Vacuole- Similar to vacuoles in function, the contractile vacuole is also capable of contracting and expanding to regulate the amount of water in a plant.
  • Tight Junctions- Junctions between cells which prevent seepage of any chemicals or fluids; hold cells tightly together
  • Anchoring Junctions- Junctions which hold cells together and prevent tearing of tissue
  • Communicating Junction- A junction similar to plasmodesmada; allows communication between cells. (also can be classified as communication)

  • Lysosome- A membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, destroys harmful bacteria, recycle damaged organelles, help develop embryos, expose nutrients to digestive enzymes. Analogy: scissors.
  • Perioxisomes- Turn dangerous peroxide (H2O2) into water (H2O).

  • Vesicle- A small, membranous sac that can be used for transportation (Could also be put in communication category).
  • Golgi Apparatus- An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum
  • Flagellum- An organelle on the outside of a cell. It contains microtubules which sway back and forth to move the cell. Usually very few.
  • Cilia- Organelles on the outside of a cell. Also contain microtubules which move and propel the cell. There are several on the outside of the cell.

Many of the organelles above could be put here. Look for notes after the description.

  • Cytoplasm- The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane.
  • Cell (or Plasma) Membrane- A delicate membrane made of lipids surrounding cells that controls what goes in and out of the cell

Information derived from Campbell Online Textbook and "The Generalized Cell" sheet.

For more information, use the following links:
Touring the Cell
Similarities and Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells
Eukaryotic Cells
KEY TERMS Chapter 4